It is early days in the evolution of the implemented SMS systems so significant data is not in abundance, however that SMS works and has a bearing on Human Factor behaviour is shown by looking at the Accident statistics for 2012 which was the safest year on record relative to the size of aviation business activities.
It is a fundamental wish of all businesses to operate effectively and to receive an acceptable return on the underlying investment.
Whilst for more “Tangible” expenditures it is relatively straight forward to develop business models that show what is happening with the finances, when we turn our attention to Human Factors and Safety Management Systems, it becomes considerably more difficult to develop measures to show direct gain.
However it should be understood that it is of paramount importance to develop effective systems to show exactly the financial benefits, otherwise we directly impact the challenge of raising internal funding for the changes needed to promote positive HF related behaviours within the Organizations SMS system.
So we need to understand the costs which the business incurs on a routine basis and use these costs to develop a set of values which we can use to show the benefits to the Return on Investment ROI by changes which are driven by SMS and HF organizational processes.
Discuss these issues with your company accountant who has the responsibility for the financial modeling to see how this can be developed specifically in the best way for the organization.
If we can develop effective metrics including financial KPI’s we are making steps in the right direction which will only serve s a positive effect on the business over time.
Consider that this area is also to be considered with the core competencies of the Safety Manager and that as in all Competency oversight systems, a gap or shortfall generates a training needs analysis.
In a proactive SMS system where the risks are to be reduced to a level which is as low as reasonably practical ALARP then we have to face the fact that safety too has a cost. The more we are able to quantify the benefits in an effective way the stronger the business case for change.
Sofema Aviation Services www.sassofia.com offers regulatory trainings including Safety Management Systems and SMS Training for Trainers, Human Factors and Human Factors Training for Trainers for additional details email firstname.lastname@example.org]]>
As we know certain areas of the business, (In aviation these are many) can be described as high risk.
For these area, among the many mitigation’s employed are audits which can play a significant role, to establish ongoing conformity with company processes and procedures.
What is Conformance ? Conformance is associated with a standard or drawing for example in connection with form fit or function for example. Within an environment of Compliance we have many instances of Conformance.
Compliance takes Conformance to a higher level, consider the following statement – the requirements were met during the production or delivery of the product or service.
So we understand that Compliance audits are designed to give assurance that activities have been performed properly. It should be understood of course that Compliance Audits are off course reactive.
Compliance audits also tend to be subjective in respect that they pass or fail, to put this in another way, the fact is that It is an unknown if the compliance will be satisfactory next week or next month.
When considering Compliance Audits , in Abstract, The major shortfall of the compliance audit is that it does not test the process or procedures developed to deliver the requirement. (As a result some assumption is made on behalf of the auditor.)
In accordance with the requirements of EASA and other regulatory bodies The management is obligated to perform an annual review but often the detail which is required to be subjective is not always available.
So to consider a Performance Audit – Performance do not focus on compliance with the regulations, A performance audit looks more at the organisations effectiveness for efficiency and business results.
A performance audit recognizes that all is not perfect, For example whist we do the best we can with the resources available, there may be unacceptable shortfalls.
In a performance audit the rules are challenged, whilst the underlying principles driving those rules are accepted and not challenged – This type of auditing goes beyond compliance.
Performance auditing requires a deep understanding of the controls that are desired. it then examines the many methods being used to achieve those controls.
Performance audits examine the effectiveness of the organisations systems Are procedures user friendly (effective)? Do established systems have the necessary scope to deliver.
(Auditor Competency plays a significant role in delivering effective performance audits)]]>
Your opinion comments and thoughts are welcome in regard to the advised interpretations
- What is an evaluation and what is the outcome?
The evaluation results in an outcome which is driven of course by the criteria applied to the evaluation
- How do you rate an evaluation based on Table from GM2?
It is organization specific and depends on the role and responsibilities of the individual of course if you are working on the line the competencies will have a different focus and relevance than if you are working on base maintenance or in the workshop environment
- Who are the subjects of the evaluation ? With witch occasion? How often?
Every person in the production process – mechanics certifying staff Quality staff Stores staff & management – at least 1 per year
- How do I document an evaluation?
Company specific from simple A4 form to more complicated document
- I may do evaluations for Inspectors but who is doing evaluation for other categories, including managers?
Develop an internal approved assessor process where the assessors are trained and approved by the quality manager
- What is the difference between Type Rating and Type Training?
After type training you are able with practical experience to obtain a type rating for example B737 BI
- When understanding Aircraft Maintenance Competence Considerations - What is the difference between Practical Training and On the Job Training?
Practical training may not actually contribute to production, for example you will do a repair on a test piece of structure this is for training purposes only
On the job training may contribute to the work process (or not depending on the actual tasks )
- What is the difference between Practical Experience and On the Job Training?
Many similarities in these two areas
Practical experience happens over time I may watch you change a wheel this is practical experience
On the job training I change the wheel while you are watching me and signing for my work (On the job training of course is also practical experience)
- To comply with Aircraft Maintenance Competence Considerations who gives On the Job Training and on which purpose?
The organization develops a process which delivers appropriate OJT possibly using nominated Trainers and Assessors
- How often does a technician undergoes On the Job Training in his career and why?
He should receive training when he experiences changes in his working environment
Change of working environment line to base for example
- What is the relationship between Part 147 and Part 145 organizations from Part 66 point of view particularly in respect of Aircraft Maintenance Competence Considerations ?
The Part 147 organization is a service provider to the Part 145 Organization
To deliver Basic training to enable maintenance staff to obtain Part 66 licences and to deliver type training to enable the organization to train certifying staff to enable them to obtain Part 66 type ratings and to support the type rating process.
Part 147 organization is not part of the internal regulatory training process, this in fact is managed by the organisations own quality system]]>